Congenital lesions of the skin and soft tissue represent a group of conditions that include congenital melanocytic (colored or pigmented) nevi, sebaceous nevi, and various other skin lesions.
A congenital nevus, also known as a mole, is a type of pigmented birthmark that appears at birth or during a baby’s first year. These moles are frequently found on the trunk or limbs, although they can appear anywhere on the body. These occur in 1% to 2% of the population. Giant congenital nevi may require more than one surgery in order to completely remove them, and may benefit from tissue expansion or skin grafting.
Dermoid Cyst are present at birth and get larger with time. They may not be noticed at birth. Dermoid cysts are treated by removal and usually are found at the tail end of the eyebrow. These cysts are often able to be removed through an incision concealed in your child’s upper eyelid fold.
Epidermoid Inclusion Cyst are nearly always harmless cysts which have a sac containing skin contents. Epidermoid cysts are common and are often found on the head, chest, and back. To prevent them from returning, the entire sac needs to be removed. For this reason, surgical removal is typically the preferred treatment.
Pilomatrixoma is a benign tumor that is derived from hair follicles and typically found in the head, neck, or upper extremities. Pilomatrixomas occur commonly in children. They often can be recognized by a bluish appearance. The skin overlying the pilomatrixoma may appear discolored in part because it is so close to the skin’s surface. Pilomatrixomas tend to grow over time, and the standard treatment is removal. A pilomatrixoma will not go away on its own. Surgical removal is needed to rid the body of the pilomatrixoma. It is important to keep in mind that pilomatrixomas are considered tumors and also, they are benign in an overwhelmingly percentage of patients. Pilomatrixoma surgery is an outpatient procedure. Depending on your child’s age and location, the procedure may be done in the office under local anesthesia. For pilomatrixomas on the face, it is often best to have them removed in the operating room.
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Vascular Anomalies are of blood vessels or lymphatic tissue that have developed incorrectly or overgrown. They can cause functional or aesthetic problems and may be composed of arteries, capillaries, veins, lymph vessels, or any combination of these. These include hemangiomas, lymphatic malformations, venous malformations, and arteriovenous malformations.