Of the 1% to 2% of babies born with congenital defects, 10% are born with anomalies of the hand.
These anomalies occur in early pregnancy and are sometimes diagnosed by ultrasound during pregnancy.
There is no known cause of congenital hand anomalies.
Polydactyly is a deformity in which the hand has one or more extra fingers in any of three places of the hand: on the small finger (ulnar) side, which is most common, or on the thumb (radial) side, which is less common. Other deformities include thumb duplication or duplication in the middle of the hand, which is the least common.
Syndactyly is the condition of having some or all of the fingers or toes wholly or partly united. It may be only the skin that is shared between the digits, or the union between the fingers or toes may involve bone. The goal of surgery is to procedure functional digits that appear as normal as possible. Skin grafts are commonly used to replace the skin that is missing in digits affected by syndactyly.
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